Noon Saakin and Tanween are one of the most important topics in the Tajweed. Tanween is a fundamental component of Arabic grammar and pronunciation that is essential to form and interpreting Arabic words as well as the Quran.
Noon Saakin Rules in Tajweed mean the rulings that determine the way to pronounce the letter “Noon sakin” when reading the Holy Qur’an.
For Quranic Arabic to be effectively understood, Noon Saakin and Tanween must be properly understood which plays a key role to improve the reading of the verses of the Holy Quran.
Here we will learn the following:
What is Noon Sakin in the Quran And Tajweed?
The phrase “Noon Sakinah” is a grammatical rule in the Quranic Arabic language that is not mentioned in the Quran. The noon Sakinah (نون ساكنة) refers to a situation where the letter “noon” (ن) appears with a sukoon (نْ) -which is a diacritical mark indicating the absence of a vowel sound- at the end of a word without having a vowel over it.
Noon Sakin occurs when certain words or grammatical constructs come together, causing a specific phonetic change.
What Is Tanween in Quran And Tajweed?
Tanween is an Arabic word for double vocalization that occurs at the conclusion of syllables and has the same sound as noon sakin. Tanween is written differently ( ٍ ) but sounds the same as a Noon with a jazm (or a Noon with a sukoon) at the end of a word.
Tanween is a Quranic and Tajweed concept referring to the diacritical mark (or vowelization) used to indicate the indefinite accusative case.
Tanween is pronounced by adding a /n/ sound to the short vowels and written by adding the following three forms:
- In Fateh, the sound is (an) (i.e. تً tann) It is denoted by a double fatha above the letter.
- In Kasrah, the sound is (in) (i.e. بٍ bin) = It is denoted by a double kasra under the letter.
- In Dhamma, the sound is (un) (i.e., جٌ gunn) = It is denoted by a double short vowel mark above the letter.
Tanween serves as a grammatical marker in Arabic to indicate that a noun or adjective is indefinite or that the verb is in the accusative case. It helps in understanding the grammatical structure and meaning of words within the Quran.
Understanding and applying the rules of tanween in Tajweed is essential for accurate recitation and proper understanding of the Quran’s meaning and structure.
Read About the Rules of Tanween in the Quran and Tajweed in depth.
Noon Saakin and Tanween Rules:
In order to properly pronounce noon Saakin or Tanween when combined with other letters, the following four rules must be followed:
1. Izhar of Noon Saakin and Tanween
Izhar is an Arabic word for “to show,” which refers to making anything apparent. In the context of Tajweed, this means to display Noon Saakin or Tanween in one of the throat letters that follow Noon Saakin and Tanween, which are: (ك, ي , ء, ا, خ, ه, ع, ل, م, ح, ز, غ, ر, س )
2. Idgham of Noon Saakin and Tanween
Idgham is an Arabic word that means to merge two things. In Tajweed, to add Noon Saakin or Tanween to one of the following Idgham letters: (ي, ن, و, ل, م, ر), A Saakin letter (consonant) is joined to a vowel that is not Saakin creating a single stressed letter.
There are two types of Idgham: (Idgham with ghunna – Idgham without ghunna). the sound “Ghunna” is a sound that flows into the nose when pronouncing some letters.
A. Idgham with Ghunna of Noon Saakin and Tanween
The letters of Idgham with Ghunna are: (ي, ن, م, و). So, if Tanween or Noon Saakin comes after one of those letters, they are pronounced with ghunna; Like in the following Quranic verse:
(وَمَن يَعمَل مِنَ الصّالِحاتِ وَهُوَ مُؤمِنٌ فَلا يَخافُ ظُلمًا وَلا هَضمًا)Surah Taha 112
waman yaemal min alssalihat wahu mumin fala yakhaf zulman wala hadman
B. Idgham without Ghunna of Noon Saakin and Tanween
The letters of Idgham without Ghunna are: (ر, ل). So, if Tanween or Noon Saakin comes after one of those letters, they are pronounced without ghunna.; Like in the following Quranic verse:
(قَيِّمًا لِيُنذِرَ بَأسًا شَديدًا مِن لَدُنهُ وَيُبَشِّرَ المُؤمِنينَ الَّذينَ يَعمَلونَ الصّالِحاتِ أَنَّ لَهُم أَجرًا حَسَنًا)
(Qayiman liundhir basan shadydan min ladunh wayubashir almuminyn aladhyn yaemalwn alssalihat ‘ana lahum ‘ajran hasanan)
3. Iqlab of Noon Saakin and Tanween
In Arabic, the word “Iqlab” means to change into something else. It occurs when Tanween or noon Saakin comes with an Iqlab letter, which is merely the (ب)and turns the noon into a meem like in the word in the following Ayah: However, in Tajweed Iqlab is when a letter is replaced with another considering Ghunna of the first letter.
(وَالْأَرْضَ مَدَدْنَاهَا وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ)
(wal’ard madadnaha wa’alqayna fiha rawasi wa’anbatna fiha min kuli zawj bahijin)
4. Ikhfaa of Noon Saakin and Tanween
All of the Arabic alphabets, with the exception of Izhar, Iqlab, and Idgham, are called Ikhfaa letters. They are fifteen letters. In Tajweed, it is hiding Tanween or noon Saakin when one of the Ikhfaa letters is used after Tanween or noon Saakin.
To remember the letters of ikhfa, there is an Arabic poem that collected all fifteen letters where they are the first letter of each word. If you can memorize it, you will be able to absolutely remember the Ikhfaa letters:
صِفْ ذَا ثَنَا كَمْ جَادَ شَخْصٌ قَدْ سَمَا دُمْ طَيِّبًا زِدْ فِي تُقًى ضَعْ ظَالِمَا
sif dha thana kam jad shakhs qad sama dum tayiban zid fi tuqan dae zalima
Ikhfaa Tanween Examples
Here are some examples relevant to the Ikhfaa of the Noon Saakin h and Tanween:
مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ (min shari ma khalaq)
This ayah contains a Noon Saakin has the final letter of the first word, which is followed by another letter that causes the Noon Saakin h to be hidden.
إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَٰانَ لَفِى خُسۡر”ٍ” (‘iina ٱlۡ’iinsaan lafia khusۡr)
The second word in the aforementioned example has a Noon Saakin h in the midst of it, followed by one of the letters of ikhfa.
“سَيَصۡلَىٰ نَارًا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ” (sayasۡlaa naran dhat lahab)
In this example, the second word has a Tanween at the end of it, and the next word’s first letter is one of the Ikhfaa letters that cause the Noon Saakin h and Tanween to be hidden.
Tanween is a fundamental component of Arabic grammar and pronunciation that is essential to form and interpret Arabic words. For Arabic to be effectively communicated and understood, it must be properly understood Tanween which plays a key role to improve the reading of the verses of the Holy Quran.
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